Bibliography for Accurate Democracy.

Democracy Primer Endnotes

Printouts for Accurate Democracy

  Voting in General
  One-Winner Voting for elections.
  Proportional Voting for representative councils.
  Selecting Projects to start or adjust funding.
  Policy Voting to enact a policy.
  Costs & Benefits of the best voting rules.
  Voting Games for classes and parties.
  Electoral Simulations for teaching and research.

References by Chapter

The reference numbers restart at 1 for each chapter.

FairVote is a nonpartisan catalyst for electoral reforms. It is the best source for news, analysis and resources about voting reform in U.S. cities, states and colleges.

The Accurate Democracy book looks ahead to what groups could achieve, given enough support. It is the first to present ensemble rules to elect councils and Fair-share Spending to pick projects. It is also the only book with pictures from PoliticalSimâ„¢ and voting games with tabletop tallies.

This booklet covers much of
a_primer.htm   a_workshop.htm   d_stats.htm

The short annotated bibliography is online z_bib.htm.
The website also has free software!

Introduction Tragedies, Eras and Progress

1. Douglas J. Amy, Full Representation: The Case for a Better Election System. The North Carolina case is on page 30.

2. Kathy Durbin, Tree Huggers: Victory, Defeat & Renewal in the Northwest Ancient Forest Campaign, (Seattle, The Mountaineers, 1996)

3. Clarence Hoag and George Hallett, Proportional Representation, (New York City, The Macmillan Company, 1926).

4. Maurice Duverger, “Factors in a Two-Party and Multiparty System“, in Party Politics and Pressure Groups (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1972), pages 23 32.

5. Monopoly Politics, Takoma Park, FairVote, 2014.

6. Arend Lijphart, Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994)

7. Compare the stable democracies with statistics.

Electing a Leader, Instant Runoff

1. John R. Chamberlin, Jerry L. Cohen, and Clyde H. Coombs; “Social Choice Observed: Five Presidential Elections of the American Psychological Association” Journal of Politics. 46 (1984): 479-502.

“An Investigation into the Relative Manipulability of Four Voting Systems“, Behavioral Science; 30:4 (1985) 195-203.

Samuel Merrill III, Making Multi-candidate Elections More Democratic. (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1988).

2. “Voter Turnout in Runoff Elections”, Stephen G. Wright, The Journal of Politics, Vol. 51, No. 2 (May, 1989), pp. 385-396

3. Benjamin Reilly, Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management, 2001, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ACE Project, Papua New Guinea: Electoral Incentives for Inter-Ethnic Accommodation

4. Korean election Roh_Tae-woo,     ---

Electing a Council, Fair Representation

1. Refs 1, 2, 9 Statistics Compare Stable Democracies.

2. Ibid.

3. John D. Huber, G. Bingham Powell, Jr., “Congruence Between Citizens and Policymakers in Two Visions of Liberal Democracy”, World Politics v46 #3 (April 1994), 291-326.

4. “Illinois Assembly on Political Representation and Alternative Electoral Systems“, IGPA University of Illinois, Spring 2001.

History of cumulative voting, 1870-1970: Three is better than one

5. Nigel Roberts, NEW ZEALAND: A Long-Established Westminster Democracy Switches to PR, (Stockholm, IDEA)


6. Rob Richie, Andrew Spenser; “The Right Choice for Election” University of Richmond Law Review; v. 47 #3, March 2013.


7. Mona Lena Krook; Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide; (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 123.

8. Andrew Healy, Jennifer Pate. 2011. “Can Teams Help to Close the Gender Competition Gap?” Economics Journal, 121: 1192-1204.

9. Refs 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9. Voting Rules and Statistics of Nations

Setting Budgets, Fair-share Spending

1. Anwar Shah, ed., Participatory Budgeting: The World Bank, Washington, DC.

2. Joe Moore, Participatory Budgeting in the 49th Ward

3. Robert Tupelo-Schneck, “Transferable Votes for Fair-Share Spending” -draft, Voting Matters, Issue 31?. Presentation slides in English, en espanol.

4. Twin Oaks Community once set their support requirement at 55% for some contentious budget cuts.

Enacting a Policy, Condorcet

1. James Green-Armytage, “Four Condorcet-Hare Hybrid Methods for single-winner electionsVoting Matters 29, October 2011. ““Strategic Voting and Nomination”; Social Choice and Welfare; 42, January 2014.

James Green-Armytage, T. Nicolaus Tideman and Rafael Cosman, “Statistical Evaluation of Voting Rules”; 2014.

Voting cycles

2. See John R. Chamberlin et al, or Samuel Merrill III in One-Winner Voting above.

3. Primary challenge

4. Typical Maps

5. Free software helps groups make decisions.

6. has a group-process pattern language.

Cost and Benefits

1. Tables of parliamentary motions for Condorcet methods.

2. Ed Diener and Marissa Diener; “Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem” . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 68(4), Apr 1995, 653-663.

3. Meredith Bennett-Smith, “World's Happiest Countries 2013”; cites U.N. and OECD.
OECD Better Life Index

4. Bruce Ackerman, Ian Ayres, “Voting with Dollars: A New Paradigm for Campaign Finance”; (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).

Workshop Games, hold a vote

1. Budget ballots from Robert Tupelo-Schneck, the inventor of Fair-share Spending.

2. FairVote, Ranked Voting and Questions About Election Integrity, October 12, 2013.

Election Audits Org

3. Portland (ME) Mayoral Election with Ranked Choice Voting: A Voter Survey; By Dorothy Scheeline and Rob Richie; FairVote, 2012.

FairVote archive page, Exit Poll Surveys Show Voters Like Instant Runoff Voting

4. Jon A. Krosnick, “ In the Voting Booth, Bias Starts at the Top” , New York Times

5 See John R. Chamberlin et al, or Samuel Merrill III above.

Simulation Examples, compare rules

1. Robert Loring, SimElection, 1996,

See John R. Chamberlin et al, or Samuel Merrill III, or James Green-Armytage above.

Henry E. Brady, “Dimensional Analysis of Ranking Data”, American Journal of Political Science, 34 (11/90).

2. Corrine McConnaughy, The Woman Suffrage Movement in America: A Reassessment; (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2013). Review

3. Shari Tishman and Albert Andrade, Thinking Dispositions A review of current theories, practices, and issues. [Many people use these critical ways of thinking at times, but fewer have a disposition to use them routinely.]

4. Institute for Local Self-Reliance

5. A table contrasting egalitarian vs authoritarian values


The short annotated bibliography is online.
And this website also has free software!

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